Thursday, May 21, 2020

A Commentary On Society In The 1800s - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1827 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2019/05/31 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: Pride and Prejudice Essay Did you like this example? Pride and Prejudice conveys a commentary on society in the 1800s; it describes the society at the time while also presenting Jane Austenrs generally dissenting opinion on it. In the book, Austen states certain things like facts and then throughout the story, the characters either fall into place or rebel against societal expectations. This is how she establishes her opinions. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "A Commentary On Society In The 1800s" essay for you Create order Austen makes the characters who rebel against what society wants sympathetic while showing the issues that arise with the characters who follow along and making some of those characters antagonistic. To provide some examples, Austen uses these situations to prove her points; Mr. Darcy and Elizabethrs first impression and eventual romance, Mr. Collinrs pandering to Lady Catherine, and Mr. Wickham and Lydiars elopement. Mr. Darcy makes a pretty terrible first impression to Elizabeth, and that impression lingers for the better first half of the whole book. At first, Austen has Mr. Darcy fall in line with the social stereotypes for a man of his standing when hers rude to Elizabeth because of her lower class and not being handsome enough for him, as shown in this quote: Which do you mean? and turning round, he looked for a moment at Elizabeth, till catching her eye, he withdrew his own and coldly said, She is tolerable; but not handsome enough to tempt me; and I am in no humour at present to give consequence to young ladies who are slighted by other men. You had better return to your partner and enjoy her smiles, for you are wasting your time with me. Darcy is basically falling right into how many men were at the time. Elizabethrs social standing wasnt high enough for him to consider her for a moment. Hers prejudiced against her from the start, which is why the title of the book is what it is. Austen s hows her own opinion on how Darcy acts by making him an antagonistic character. Elizabeth and her family are offended by him because of how he treats Elizabeth. Even when Darcy starts to fall in love with Elizabeth, hers still a jerk because when he proposes to her. He talks about how he loves her even though hers lowering himself to her social standing, as developed in this quote: He spoke well; but there were feelings besides those of the heart to be detailed; and he was not more eloquent on the subject of tenderness than of pride. His sense of her inferiority of its being a degradation of the family obstacles which had always opposed to inclination, were dwelt on with a warmth which seemed due to the consequence he was wounding, but was very unlikely to recommend his suit. Darcy is still antagonistic at this point. Hers so worried about his class and social standing that he even makes a point of it in his proposal to the woman hers hoping to marry, which the book makes out to be ridiculous and offensive. Austen superimposes many of her views on this subject through Elizabeth. How Elizabeth reacts gives us a hint to what Austen thinks abou t the subject as well. When Elizabeth angrily rejects Mr. Darcy, itrs showing Austenrs opinion on people being so extremely preoccupied with class differences. However, Mr. Darcy doesnt stay as an unsympathetic character, and eventually, the main romance of the book is allowed to develop in tandem to Mr. Darcyrs own development. Slowly throughout the course of the rest of the story, Mr. Darcy realizes that he loves Elizabeth and her class should not and will not have an effect on his desire to marry her. Once he makes this clear to Elizabeth, we see Austenrs opinions again through Elizabethrs reaction. When Lady Catherine confronts Elizabeth with her misguided view that Elizabeth is Darcyrs social inferior, Elizabeth replies, In marrying your nephew, I should not consider myself as quitting that sphere. He is a gentleman; I am a gentlemanrs daughter; so far we are equal. Elizabethrs words reveal how Austen thinks marriage should work; that Mr. Darcy and Elizabeth are equal, and any social distance between them should not be a factor considered over love. The second social commentary Austen makes is via Mr. Collins and his relationship with Lady Catherine. Mr. Collins is one of the most extreme characters in regards to his opinions on class. While Mr. Darcy and Mr. Wickham share his views, at least at first, Mr. Collins is the most bumbling and obvious about it. Mr. Collins basically sees himself as the cream of the crop because hers clergy, as shown here: My dear Miss Elizabeth, [ ] permit me to say, that there must be a wide difference between the established forms of ceremony amongst the laity, and those which regulate the clergy; for, give me leave to observe that I consider the clerical office as equal in point of dignity with the highest rank in the kingdom provided that a proper humility of behavior is at the same time maintained. Hers basically saying here that he considers himself equal to the highest social standing among the nobility, or non-clerical members of society. We can see Austenrs opinion on this purely through th e fact that she makes Mr. Collins extremely irritating throughout the entire story. He never stops being annoying, and he never changes his views on society, unlike Darcyrs character arc. Mr. Collins tries to get with Jane and Elizabeth during the story. He doesnt propose to Jane because he recognizes that Mr. Bingley likes her; however, since Elizabeth is not currently engaged with anyone, Mr. Collins proposes to her. Elizabeth absolutely refuses, much to the anger of her mother. Elizabethrs mother tries to force Elizabeth into marrying Mr. Collins. During this conversation, Mr. Collins further reveals his personality and why Elizabeth and the reader are definitely not supposed to like him: Pardon me for interrupting you, madam, cried Mr. Collins; but if she is really headstrong and foolish, I know not whether she would altogether be a very desirable wife to a man in my situation, who naturally looks for happiness in the marriage state. If therefore she actually persists in rejecting my suit, perhaps it were better not to force her into accepting me, because if liable to such defects of temper, she could not contribute much to my felicity. Mr. Collins is basically sa ying here that he considers Elizabeth foolish for not accepting his proposal, and since hers concerned with his own happiness, he changes his mind about marrying her. Itrs evident that he doesnt care about his future wifers feelings, though. Mr. Collins continues to be characterized as an unsympathetic character, and thatrs Austenrs intentions. When the reader meets Mr. Collinrs patron, Lady Catherine, they are absolutely not supposed to like her either. Lady Catherine and Mr. Collins fit together perfectly in regards to their opinions on class and society. Theyre both extreme examples of what upper-class folks were supposed to think during that time period. When Elizabeth goes to visit Lady Catherine, Mr. Collins makes this statement: Do not make yourself uneasy, my dear cousin, about your apparel. Lady Catherine is far from requiring that elegance of dress in us which becomes herself and her daughter. I could advise you merely to put on whatever of your clothes is superior to the rest there is no occasion for anything more. Lady Catherine will not think the worse of you for being simply dressed. She likes to have the distinction of rank preserved. With this one quote, before we even meet Lady Catherine, Austen makes it clear what were supposed to think about her. The line, She likes to have the distinction of rank preserv ed, is immediately intended to be an irritant to the reader and to Elizabeth herself. Throughout the entire visit, Lady Catherine shows herself to be extremely preoccupied with rank and class, and Elizabeth dislikes her for it. Finally, Lydiars marriage to Mr. Wickham really develops what Austen thinks about reputation. When Lydia runs away with Mr. Wickham, Mr. Collins says this: The death of your daughter would have been a blessing in comparison of this. [ ] Howsoever that may be, you are grievously to be pitied; in which opinion I am not only joined by Mrs. Collins, but likewise by Lady Catherine and her daughter, to whom I have related the affair. They agree with me in apprehending that this false step in one daughter will be injurious to the fortunes of all the others; for who, as Lady Catherine herself condescendingly says, will connect themselves with such a family? Hers saying that Lydia being dead would be better than her running off with a guy! That level of concern about oners social standing is insane. Lady Catherine shares his views, as also developed in this quote: I am no stranger to the particulars of your youngest sisterrs infamous elopement. I know it all; that the young manrs marrying her was a patched-up business, at the expence of your father and uncles. And is such a girl to be my nephewrs sister? Is her husband, is the son of his late fatherrs steward, to be his brother? Heaven and earth! of what are you thinking? Are the shades of Pemberley to be thus polluted? Lady Catherine is saying that because of Lydiars elopement, the entire Bennet family would go into disgrace. Since this is coming from an unsympathetic character, it shows what Austen thinks about that concept. The fact that Lydiars marriage would have ruined the Bennet family is shown to be an offense to the other Bennet sisters. However, despite this, Lydia is still portrayed as an unsympathetic character after she gets married, as shown in this quote: Lydia was Lydia still; untamed, unabashed, wild, noisy, and fearless. She turned from sister to sister, demanding their congratulations; and when at length they all sat down, looked eagerly round the room, took notice of some little alteration in it, and observed, with a laugh, that it was a great while since she had been there. Through Lydiars characterization, we see that while the fact that the Bennet sisters would be shamed is reprehensible, Austen still thinks that Lydiars judgment was bad. Lydia is foolish and made a bad decision when she ran off with Mr. Wickham. However, her choices shouldnt bring shame to the other sisters. Although, the situation that Lydia placed the sisters in made Mr. Darcyrs intervention all the kinder, as he saves the Bennets from shame out of his own pocket. In conclusion, Jane Austen reveals her personal opinion through her characterrs thoughts, actions, and how theyre perceived. Using Mr. Darcyrs character arc, Mr. Collinrs relationship with Lady Catherine, and Lydiars marriage, the reader sees what Austen thinks about the social expectations and rules of the time. Austen portrays characters who are preoccupied with social class and standing as unsympathetic and sometimes antagonistic, like Mr. Darcy at the beginning of the book and Lady Catherine throughout.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Corporate Social Responsibility Essay - 1543 Words

The Warehouse Group Ltd is a typical half-hearted company that does not do what it preaches in the area of Corporate Social Responsibility. From the Warehouse Annual Report and Social and Environment Report 2009, I found that the company is not only focusing on its financial performance, but also on social and environmental external effects. A critical analysis of this reporting practice suggests that the Warehouse is not truly responsible socially and environmentally but more a public relation exercise of the company. The Warehouse was established in 1982 to operate some discount stores. The company has over 7,600 employees in the all network stores and has 253 stores through New Zealand from Kataia in the North Island to Invercargill†¦show more content†¦Therefore the main motive of the Warehouse to disclose the information on CSR activities is to portray its Corporate Social Responsibility image in order to pursue profits. There are four activities of the Warehouse I would like to analyze to show this motive. In dealing with the customers, the company is showing only things that exhibits the customers’ interests, in this case low price. Customers get cheap products, but they also get low quality products from their stores. Even though the Warehouse is showing their efforts in helping (pressuring) the suppliers to increase the quality, but the products offered are still in low quality. From this, we can infer that the main point of the company is to maximize their profit: low price means low quality. If the quality is better, it is because they exert power to their suppliers. In showing that the company is trying to be environmentally responsible, the Warehouse is talking about their main point of activities, which is a ‘zero waste’ by trying to minimize waste and supporting the practice of recycling. The company is one of the first companies that decided to minimize waste by charging fee on their plastic bags. With this initiative, the Warehouse has been selected as one of the top environmentally responsible companies when they won the Keep New Zealand BeautifulShow MoreRelated Corporate Social Responsibility Essay1698 Words   |  7 Pagessocially responsible and now stakeholders almost expect a company to have CSR policies. Therefore, in twentieth century, corporate social responsibility (CSR) became an important development in public life (Barnett, ND).Corporate social responsibility is defined as â€Å"the ways in which an organisation exceeds the minimum obligations to stakeholders specified through regulation and corporate governance † (Johnson, Schools and Whittington, N.D cited in March, 2012). Stakeholders can be defined as â€Å"those individualsRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility Essay2817 Words   |  12 Pagesto address social responsibilities. This is only certain truth to this statement as the world we live in now is evolving. People in the current era are more concern about social responsibility especially with corporations and their behaviours and plans. There is an increasing demand on businesses to have a â€Å"social conscience† and taking serious responsibility for providing employment, eliminating discrimination, ethical working environment and whatever else is related to having a â€Å"social conscience†Read MoreCorporate Social Responsibility Essay3287 Words   |  14 Pagespeople have become more conscious of the ethical and social responsibilities of business over recent decades, suggesting that the modern businesspeople should not only consider about profitability but also extent to what they can contribute to the whole society. A quote by Anita Roddick generally demonstrates the spirit of being ethically and socially responsible: â€Å"The business of business should not be about money. It should be about responsibility. It should be about public good, not private greedRead More Corporate Social Responsibility Essay2477 Words   |  10 PagesCorporate Social Responsibility Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a very controversial topic. A question that has been debated for the past few decades is; is it corporately viable to introduce social responsibility as a proposed addition to the work ethic of business organisations. As well as, if adopting the framework of corporate social responsibility would yield positive improvements for those organisations. The purpose of this essay is to research the notion of CSR and uncoverRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility Essays1662 Words   |  7 Pages Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is the concept that corporations are expected to perform certain acts for the betterment of society. The article â€Å"Doing Right Leads to Doing Well†, explores CSR by contending that although firms use these tactics for some societal good, they may also be linked with increased brand identification and consumer trust, which may bloat the firm’s bottom line. The authors maintain that CSR outputs such as sponsorship, cause-related marketing, andRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility Essay1266 Words   |  6 PagesMany people believe that they have a social responsibility to take care of their community and the people within that community. The community can expand from local and regional to national and international in scope. Social responsibility in not limited to i ndividuals, but many businesses and organization have joined the call for social responsibility. Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR, is when business and corporations make this a priority in their operations. Two questions come to mindRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility Essay1334 Words   |  6 PagesThe term Corporate Social Responsibility refers to a company’s responsibility to provide a benefit to the society the company affects. Corporate social responsibility incorporates dimensions of corporate responsibility, and corporate policy which include a company’s policy to hire minority or disabled workers, or taking a stance on social and political issues that benefit the community. The social portion of corporate social responsibility includes corporate charitable business contributions andRead More Corporate Social Responsibility Essay1897 Words   |  8 Pages Corporate social responsibility is becoming a key initiative and an essential tool in the growth of multinational corporations and the development of third world countries throughout the globe. The two concepts can work hand in hand to provide benefits for all; however difficulties in regulating and implementing corporate social responsibility need to be overcome before effective changes can be made. Definitions of corporate social responsibility can be somewhat varied depending on theRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility Essay882 Words   |  4 Pagesvariety of social issues and problems; some directly related to their operations, some are not. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) can be defined as â€Å"the actions of an organization that are targeted toward achieving a social benefit over and above maximizing profits for its shareholders and meeting all its legal obligations† (Ghillyer 78). If this is the case, establishing appropriate and practical ethical guidelines in the workplace seems to be a reasonable request as a basis for corporate operationsRead MoreEssay on Corporate And Social Responsibility988 Words   |  4 PagesCorporate And Social Responsibility In recent years, Corporate and Social Responsibility has become an ever increasing concern and source of community debate. It is now socially accepted that corporations have some ongoing responsibility, though sometimes ignored, to set a good example, make decisions based on social good and on ensuring positive environmental practices. The two articles reviewed both focus on this corporate responsibility but they have very different approaches and draw

Comprehensive Exam Reviewer Free Essays

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND MANAGEMENT What is an Organization? An organization is a collection of people who work together to achieve individual and organizational goals. What is Organizational Behavior? Organizational behavior (OB) is the study of factors that affect how individuals and groups act in organizations and how organizations manage their environments What is Management? Management is the process of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling an organization’s human, financial, material, and other resources to increase its effectiveness. Managerial Roles * Manager: Any person who supervises one or more subordinates. We will write a custom essay sample on Comprehensive Exam Reviewer or any similar topic only for you Order Now * Role: A set of behaviors or tasks a person is expected to perform because of the position he or she holds in a group or organization. * Managerial roles identified by Mintzberg (see Table 1. 1): FigureheadLeader LiaisonMonitor DisseminatorSpokesperson EntrepreneurDisturbance handler Resource allocatorNegotiator Managerial Skills * Conceptual Skills: The ability to analyze and diagnose a situation and distinguish between cause and effect. Human Skills: The ability to understand, work with, lead, and control the behavior of other people and groups. * Technical Skills: Job-specific knowledge and techniques. Challenges for Organizational Behavior and Management * Using new information technology to enhance creativity and organizational learning. * Managing human resources to increase competitive advantage. * Developing organizational ethics and well-being. * Managing a diverse work force. * Managing the global environment. Challenge 1: Using New Information Technology to Enhance Creat ivity and Organizational Learning Information technology: The computer systems and software that organizations use to speed the flow of information around an organization and to better link people and subunits within it. * Creativity: The decision-making process that produces novel and useful ideas that lead to new or improved goods and services or to improvements in the way they are produced. New Ways to Increase Performance * Reengineering: A complete rethinking and redesign of business processes to increase efficiency, quality, innovation, or responsiveness to customers. * Restructuring: Altering an organization’s structure (e. g. by eliminating a department) to streamline the organization’s operations and reduce costs. * Outsourcing: Acquiring goods or services from sources outside the organization. * Freelancers: Independent individuals who contract with an organization to perform specific services. Challenge 3 Developing Organizational Ethics and Well-Being * Eth ics: Rules, beliefs, and values that outline the ways in which managers and workers should behave when confronted with a situation in which their actions may help or harm other people inside of or outside an organization. * Well-being: The condition of being happy, healthy, and prosperous. Social responsibility: An organization’s moral responsibility toward individuals or groups outside the organization that are affected by its actions. The core 21st century qualities needed to create the ideal work atmosphere begin with intelligence, passion, a strong work ethic, and a genuine concern for people. Managing and Working Today and in the Future: * Managers must become agile and flexible to help their firms develop and sustain competitive advantage * To be successful, managers will need to harness the powers of: * information technology * human capital Challenges of These Forces to Managers * Resisting the reality of these forces will likely lead to: * Unnecessary conflict * Reduced managerial performance * Reduced non-managerial performance * Lost opportunities * Failing to cope and deal with these forces will likely result in: * Job dissatisfaction * Poor morale * Reduced commitment * Lower work quality * Burnout * Poor judgment * Unhealthy consequences Taylor’s Scientific Management Principles (1 of 2) * Develop a science for each element of an employee’s work * which replaces the old rule-of-thumb method Scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the worker * whereas in the past a worker chose the work to do and was self-trained Taylor’s Scientific Management Principles (2 of 2) * Heartily cooperate with each other to insure that all work was done in accordance with the principles of science * There is an almost equal division of the work and the responsibility between management and non-manag ers Impact of Fayol’s Functions of Management * Emphasized the importance of carefully practicing efficient: * planning * organizing * commanding * coordinating * controlling Management is a separate body of knowledge that can be applied in any type of organization * A theory of management that can be learned and taught * There is a need for teaching management in colleges Definition of Organizational Behavior (OB) * The study of human behavior, attitudes, and performance within an organizational setting * drawing on theory, methods, and principles from such disciplines as psychology, sociology, political science, and cultural anthropology * to learn about individual, groups, structure, and processes Systems Theory and Effectiveness (1 of 2) Organizational effectiveness is an all-encompassing concept that includes a number of component concepts * The managerial task is to maintain the optimal balance among these components Managers can lead the way to higher levels of effecti veness by: (1 of 2) * Providing opportunities for training and continuous learning * Sharing information with employees * Encouraging cross-development partnerships * Linking compensation to performance Managers can lead the way to higher levels of effectiveness by: (2 of 2) * Avoiding layoffs * Being a supportive role model Respecting the differences across employees * Being a good listener Key Points (1 of 2) * The key to an organization’s success is its human resources * Organizations need human resources that: * work hard * think creatively * perform excellently Key Points (2 of 2) * Rewarding, encouraging, and nurturing the human resources in a timely and meaningful manner is what is required * The behavior of employees is the key to achieving effectiveness Chapter 16 Organizational Behavior across cultures Chapter objectives: * Conditions affecting multinational operations Individual differences among employees * Barriers to cultural adoption * Overcoming barriers to cu ltural adoption * Productivity and cultural contingencies Condition affecting multinational operation The people of the world are organized into nations with its own way, according to its recourses and heritages. There are some similarities and differences among the nations. Understanding these differences and how they influence organizational behavior is aided by examination of following keys: * Social conditions * Legal and ethical conditions Political conditions * Economic conditions Social conditions In many countries the social condition is poorly developed , there are major shortages of managerial personnel, scientists and technicians and these deficiencies limit the ability to employ local labor . Needed skills must be imported from other countries while the local workers will be prepared. exp American nation welcomed an electronic assembly plant to its capital city . the plant was labor- intensive, so the many jobs it provided reduce the nation’s high unemployment rat e. ages were above standards, working conditions were good and the plant was environmentally clean. Additionally company’s agreement with the host nation stated that the company would supply a cadre of managers and technicians to train local employees. local would gradually become supervisors, technician and purchasing specialist and so on. Legal and ethical conditions In judicial systems, some countries practice rapid disposition of cases, in other countries cases may drag on for years. Some countries condone the practice of bribery as way of obtaining and retaining businesses others strictly prohibit it. Managers need to be aware of the possible differences in both laws and ethical values that define acceptable and unacceptable behaviors in foreign countries . The managers in foreign countries need to become familiar with local customers and practice . Applying their own personal and organizational value system, their must then decide which behaviors are compatible with both parties’ expectations and which are not. Finally ,they need to recognize that the resolution of ethical issues is not always clear-cut. Individual differences There are five dimensions that accounted for the sharpest differences among employees including: Individualism/collectivism * Power distance * Uncertainty avoidance * Masculinity/femininity * Time orientation Individual differences * Individualism/Collectivism: cultures that emphasize individualism tend to accent individual rights and freedoms and place considerable attention on self-respect whereas collectivism heavily accent the group and values ha rmony among members. For example in US there is individualistic culture(â€Å"every person for him/her self†) but Japan is collectivistic, with the culture that can be characterized by the proverb:†The nail sticks up gets pounded down. * Power distance: refers to the belief which are strong and legitimate decision-making rights separating managers and employees. Individual differences * Uncertainty avoidance: These employees prefer to avoid ambiguity at work and those who with high degree often prefer stability, security and clarity. * Masculinity/ Femininity: define gender roles in more traditional ways. In addition, masculine societies evaluate assertive behavior and acquisition wealth ;whereas feminine cultures contribute to the relationships among people, caring for others and greater balance between family and work life. Individual differences * Time orientation: some cultures emphasize values such as the necessity of preparing for the future, the value of thrift and savings and the qualification of persistence which have long-term orientation such as Hong Kong, China and Japan. * Other cultures value the past and accent the present with the respect for tradition and need to fulfill historical social obligations, they have short-term orientation such as France, Russia, and West Africa. Managing at International workforce * Multiculturism: occurs when the employees in two or more cultures nteract with each one regular basis. In some instances the new employees are parent-country nationals from the nations in which the home office is located or they may be third-country nationals from some other nations. In either case they are called expatriate because they come from another nation. Their role is to provide a combination of cultures in which both parties adjust to the new situation of seeking greater productivity for the benefit of both the organization and the citizens of the country. Barriers to cultural adaption Parochialism: it means that the people see the situation around them from their own perspective. They may fail to recognize key differences between their own and others’ cultures. * Ethnocentrism: occurs when people are predisposed (talented) to believe that their homeland conditions are the best. This predisposition is known as the self-reference criterion or ethnocentrism. * Cultural empathy: is the awareness of the differences across the cultures and understanding of the ways in which those differences can affect business relationships. When culture empathy continues, it will result in geocentric organization which ignore person’s nationality while emphasizing employee ability in selection, assignment, and decisions. CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION * Transcultural Managers are those who have learned to manage employees in several cultures effectively. Transcultural Employees are those who have learned to operate effectively in several cultures. These employees are low in ethnocentrism and adapt readily to different cultures without major cultural shock. They usually communicate in more than one language. Transcultural employees are especially needed in large, multinational firms that operate in a variety of national cultures. * Multinational Firm: For a firm to be fully Multinational in character, it should have the following items truly diversified without primary dominance of any one nation : – Ownership, – Operations, – Markets, – Managers. * Multinational Companies management look to the world as an economic and social unit; but reorganize each local culture, respect its integrity, acknowledge its benefits, and use its differences effectively in their organization. How to cite Comprehensive Exam Reviewer, Essay examples

Comprehensive Exam Reviewer Free Essays

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND MANAGEMENT What is an Organization? An organization is a collection of people who work together to achieve individual and organizational goals. What is Organizational Behavior? Organizational behavior (OB) is the study of factors that affect how individuals and groups act in organizations and how organizations manage their environments What is Management? Management is the process of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling an organization’s human, financial, material, and other resources to increase its effectiveness. Managerial Roles * Manager: Any person who supervises one or more subordinates. We will write a custom essay sample on Comprehensive Exam Reviewer or any similar topic only for you Order Now * Role: A set of behaviors or tasks a person is expected to perform because of the position he or she holds in a group or organization. * Managerial roles identified by Mintzberg (see Table 1. 1): FigureheadLeader LiaisonMonitor DisseminatorSpokesperson EntrepreneurDisturbance handler Resource allocatorNegotiator Managerial Skills * Conceptual Skills: The ability to analyze and diagnose a situation and distinguish between cause and effect. Human Skills: The ability to understand, work with, lead, and control the behavior of other people and groups. * Technical Skills: Job-specific knowledge and techniques. Challenges for Organizational Behavior and Management * Using new information technology to enhance creativity and organizational learning. * Managing human resources to increase competitive advantage. * Developing organizational ethics and well-being. * Managing a diverse work force. * Managing the global environment. Challenge 1: Using New Information Technology to Enhance Creat ivity and Organizational Learning Information technology: The computer systems and software that organizations use to speed the flow of information around an organization and to better link people and subunits within it. * Creativity: The decision-making process that produces novel and useful ideas that lead to new or improved goods and services or to improvements in the way they are produced. New Ways to Increase Performance * Reengineering: A complete rethinking and redesign of business processes to increase efficiency, quality, innovation, or responsiveness to customers. * Restructuring: Altering an organization’s structure (e. g. by eliminating a department) to streamline the organization’s operations and reduce costs. * Outsourcing: Acquiring goods or services from sources outside the organization. * Freelancers: Independent individuals who contract with an organization to perform specific services. Challenge 3 Developing Organizational Ethics and Well-Being * Eth ics: Rules, beliefs, and values that outline the ways in which managers and workers should behave when confronted with a situation in which their actions may help or harm other people inside of or outside an organization. * Well-being: The condition of being happy, healthy, and prosperous. Social responsibility: An organization’s moral responsibility toward individuals or groups outside the organization that are affected by its actions. The core 21st century qualities needed to create the ideal work atmosphere begin with intelligence, passion, a strong work ethic, and a genuine concern for people. Managing and Working Today and in the Future: * Managers must become agile and flexible to help their firms develop and sustain competitive advantage * To be successful, managers will need to harness the powers of: * information technology * human capital Challenges of These Forces to Managers * Resisting the reality of these forces will likely lead to: * Unnecessary conflict * Reduced managerial performance * Reduced non-managerial performance * Lost opportunities * Failing to cope and deal with these forces will likely result in: * Job dissatisfaction * Poor morale * Reduced commitment * Lower work quality * Burnout * Poor judgment * Unhealthy consequences Taylor’s Scientific Management Principles (1 of 2) * Develop a science for each element of an employee’s work * which replaces the old rule-of-thumb method Scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the worker * whereas in the past a worker chose the work to do and was self-trained Taylor’s Scientific Management Principles (2 of 2) * Heartily cooperate with each other to insure that all work was done in accordance with the principles of science * There is an almost equal division of the work and the responsibility between management and non-manag ers Impact of Fayol’s Functions of Management * Emphasized the importance of carefully practicing efficient: * planning * organizing * commanding * coordinating * controlling Management is a separate body of knowledge that can be applied in any type of organization * A theory of management that can be learned and taught * There is a need for teaching management in colleges Definition of Organizational Behavior (OB) * The study of human behavior, attitudes, and performance within an organizational setting * drawing on theory, methods, and principles from such disciplines as psychology, sociology, political science, and cultural anthropology * to learn about individual, groups, structure, and processes Systems Theory and Effectiveness (1 of 2) Organizational effectiveness is an all-encompassing concept that includes a number of component concepts * The managerial task is to maintain the optimal balance among these components Managers can lead the way to higher levels of effecti veness by: (1 of 2) * Providing opportunities for training and continuous learning * Sharing information with employees * Encouraging cross-development partnerships * Linking compensation to performance Managers can lead the way to higher levels of effectiveness by: (2 of 2) * Avoiding layoffs * Being a supportive role model Respecting the differences across employees * Being a good listener Key Points (1 of 2) * The key to an organization’s success is its human resources * Organizations need human resources that: * work hard * think creatively * perform excellently Key Points (2 of 2) * Rewarding, encouraging, and nurturing the human resources in a timely and meaningful manner is what is required * The behavior of employees is the key to achieving effectiveness Chapter 16 Organizational Behavior across cultures Chapter objectives: * Conditions affecting multinational operations Individual differences among employees * Barriers to cultural adoption * Overcoming barriers to cu ltural adoption * Productivity and cultural contingencies Condition affecting multinational operation The people of the world are organized into nations with its own way, according to its recourses and heritages. There are some similarities and differences among the nations. Understanding these differences and how they influence organizational behavior is aided by examination of following keys: * Social conditions * Legal and ethical conditions Political conditions * Economic conditions Social conditions In many countries the social condition is poorly developed , there are major shortages of managerial personnel, scientists and technicians and these deficiencies limit the ability to employ local labor . Needed skills must be imported from other countries while the local workers will be prepared. exp American nation welcomed an electronic assembly plant to its capital city . the plant was labor- intensive, so the many jobs it provided reduce the nation’s high unemployment rat e. ages were above standards, working conditions were good and the plant was environmentally clean. Additionally company’s agreement with the host nation stated that the company would supply a cadre of managers and technicians to train local employees. local would gradually become supervisors, technician and purchasing specialist and so on. Legal and ethical conditions In judicial systems, some countries practice rapid disposition of cases, in other countries cases may drag on for years. Some countries condone the practice of bribery as way of obtaining and retaining businesses others strictly prohibit it. Managers need to be aware of the possible differences in both laws and ethical values that define acceptable and unacceptable behaviors in foreign countries . The managers in foreign countries need to become familiar with local customers and practice . Applying their own personal and organizational value system, their must then decide which behaviors are compatible with both parties’ expectations and which are not. Finally ,they need to recognize that the resolution of ethical issues is not always clear-cut. Individual differences There are five dimensions that accounted for the sharpest differences among employees including: Individualism/collectivism * Power distance * Uncertainty avoidance * Masculinity/femininity * Time orientation Individual differences * Individualism/Collectivism: cultures that emphasize individualism tend to accent individual rights and freedoms and place considerable attention on self-respect whereas collectivism heavily accent the group and values ha rmony among members. For example in US there is individualistic culture(â€Å"every person for him/her self†) but Japan is collectivistic, with the culture that can be characterized by the proverb:†The nail sticks up gets pounded down. * Power distance: refers to the belief which are strong and legitimate decision-making rights separating managers and employees. Individual differences * Uncertainty avoidance: These employees prefer to avoid ambiguity at work and those who with high degree often prefer stability, security and clarity. * Masculinity/ Femininity: define gender roles in more traditional ways. In addition, masculine societies evaluate assertive behavior and acquisition wealth ;whereas feminine cultures contribute to the relationships among people, caring for others and greater balance between family and work life. Individual differences * Time orientation: some cultures emphasize values such as the necessity of preparing for the future, the value of thrift and savings and the qualification of persistence which have long-term orientation such as Hong Kong, China and Japan. * Other cultures value the past and accent the present with the respect for tradition and need to fulfill historical social obligations, they have short-term orientation such as France, Russia, and West Africa. Managing at International workforce * Multiculturism: occurs when the employees in two or more cultures nteract with each one regular basis. In some instances the new employees are parent-country nationals from the nations in which the home office is located or they may be third-country nationals from some other nations. In either case they are called expatriate because they come from another nation. Their role is to provide a combination of cultures in which both parties adjust to the new situation of seeking greater productivity for the benefit of both the organization and the citizens of the country. Barriers to cultural adaption Parochialism: it means that the people see the situation around them from their own perspective. They may fail to recognize key differences between their own and others’ cultures. * Ethnocentrism: occurs when people are predisposed (talented) to believe that their homeland conditions are the best. This predisposition is known as the self-reference criterion or ethnocentrism. * Cultural empathy: is the awareness of the differences across the cultures and understanding of the ways in which those differences can affect business relationships. When culture empathy continues, it will result in geocentric organization which ignore person’s nationality while emphasizing employee ability in selection, assignment, and decisions. CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION * Transcultural Managers are those who have learned to manage employees in several cultures effectively. Transcultural Employees are those who have learned to operate effectively in several cultures. These employees are low in ethnocentrism and adapt readily to different cultures without major cultural shock. They usually communicate in more than one language. Transcultural employees are especially needed in large, multinational firms that operate in a variety of national cultures. * Multinational Firm: For a firm to be fully Multinational in character, it should have the following items truly diversified without primary dominance of any one nation : – Ownership, – Operations, – Markets, – Managers. * Multinational Companies management look to the world as an economic and social unit; but reorganize each local culture, respect its integrity, acknowledge its benefits, and use its differences effectively in their organization. How to cite Comprehensive Exam Reviewer, Essay examples

Friday, April 24, 2020

President Clintons Impeachment

Introduction Andrew Johnson enjoyed a dubious honor as the first sitting President of the United States to face an impeachment trial at the hands of his government in 1868. Over a hundred and thirty years later William Jefferson Clinton, better known as Bill Clinton, became the second.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on President Clinton’s Impeachment specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sexual morality or lack thereof, underpinned the allegations levied against the President according to his accusers (Miller 226). However, considerable speculation in 1998 suggested that Clinton’s impeachment represented a â€Å"partisan witch hunt† in much the same way as Johnson’s (Miller 226). A feeling lingered amongst observers at the time that Clinton’s political rivals inflated proof of Clinton’s â€Å"immorality† and applied incendiary terms to his behavior such as  "deceit,† â€Å"sexual scandal,† and â€Å"obstruction of justice† in an attempt to characterize the events as flagrant presidential depravity, sufficient enough to warrant his removal from office. Members of the Clinton camp classified the event simply and tersely as a conscious and determined political action, an endeavor to remove Clinton from the presidency with the help of scandal since they could not defeat him politically. This essay analyzes the impeachment of President Bill Clinton from its inception to its conclusion, with emphasis on the political machinations that surrounded the trial and its outcome. The focus will be on how and why the â€Å"Teflon President† not only survived the impeachment but how the trial buoyed his political rating once it concluded (Miller 226). This paper asserts that Clinton’s impeachment trial relates to a much deeper schism in the collective American psyche: the partisan view of sexuality and monogamy. The R epublicans at the time banked on acquiring enough public moral indignation to eject Clinton from office.Advertising Looking for research paper on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the fact that the majority of Americans believed that the behavior of the president was, by all means, bad, but it was rather private and did not influence his political competence, so it could not be enough for impeachment thwarted their efforts (Pinkele 422). The impeachment engendered the surprising revelation that approval ratings, in this case, linked less to moral and ethical considerations and more to job performance, a hale economy and the general affability, popularity and magnetism of Clinton himself, popularity that effectively undermined the evidence, and which remains to this day (Silva et al. 468). This paper also speculates upon the impact on American history of the impeachment trial that resulted in Clinton’s re moval from office as opposed to his acquittal. The trial over the president Investigation and charges The events that led to the investigation of Clinton began when Clinton was still the governor of Arkansas. On January 21, 1998, Kenneth Starr officially launched an investigation of President Clinton on charges of perjury and obstruction of justice (Moran 1). Starr and the Counsel’s decision to investigate originated in the legal case of Paula Jones, who once worked for Clinton, and who had accused him of harassing her sexually while he was still the Governor of Arkansas (Moran 1). In late 1997 Paula Jones’s lawyers subpoenaed former White House intern Monica Lewinsky, on the basis of information garnered from government employee Linda Tripp, alleging that Lewinsky and Clinton were engaged in an extramarital affair during his tenure at the White House, and that Lewinsky had asked Tripp to deny that fact under oath (Moran 1). President Clinton refuted the allegations th at he and Lewinsky had been intimate in a deposition. However, President Clinton’s behavior did not support this denial.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on President Clinton’s Impeachment specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Even though Lewinsky also denied both the affair and the obstruction of justice charge in an affidavit, Clinton’s efforts to secure Lewinsky a job and her confiding in Linda Tripp legitimated an investigation by Starr and the independent counsel (Moran 1). The reaction of supporters and opponents Clinton, for the most part, took issue with the fact that his private life had generated a â€Å"partisan-impregnated impeachment episode,† and refuted the allegations for some time (Pinkele 422). On principle, Clinton argued, what he did with his own time was his own business. The reactions from Democratic senators at the time varied; many agreed with Clinton, in theor y. However, in practice Senator Joe Lieberman, a Democrat characterized Clinton’s behavior as a â€Å"graver sense of loss for our country and its moral foundations† (Baker 60). Clinton drew fire from some of his closest Senators at the time, the understanding being that Clinton’s Achilles heel – women – had given his opponents the weapon they sought to finally oust him. Clinton’s poor political judgment would cost them the next election. Though Bill Clinton certainly did not represent the first philandering man in public office, he did possess the mantel of President, and this made his personal life public. Admittedly, at the end of the twentieth century, the president could not have his private life since his life automatically became public when he embraced the high post (Baker 60). Clinton’s indiscretions offended a paternal understanding of the presidency; in fact, many observers of the office characterize the President as  "national role model† who exemplifies the country’s people (Stuckey and Wabshall 518).Advertising Looking for research paper on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The senators who supported Clinton argued that his sex life did not warrant reflection or investigation since it was not related to his job. The President’s followers contended that this element of the presidential character did not represent an opposite or relevant measure of presidential operation (Stuckey and Wabshall 519). Senators and the voters that they represented didn’t pay attention to President Clinton’s sex life, but they did care about the well-being of the entire country and every American (Stuckey and Wabshall 519). For these elected officials, who spoke for the majority of the public at the time, Clinton extramarital relationships did not affect his professionalism and they also claimed that the president did his job and tried to make his country flourish. Senators who personally may have objected to Clinton’s reckless personal risks, politically speaking, did not regard it as â€Å"impeachable† (Stuckey and Wabshall 519). The outco me of the trial When President Clinton stood trial in the Senate under impeachment, the historical weight of this moment was not lost on its participants. Clinton’s impeachment trial represented only the second occurrence in U.S. history that a sitting president faced impeachment under the House of Representatives and brooked a trial under the scrutiny of the Senate, accused of perjury and obstruction of justice (Miller 226). The impeachment trial lasted for 37 days and ended with a 55 to 45 votes rejecting the perjury charges, and a 50 to 50 rejection in the matter of obstruction of justice (Miller 226). To be removed from office, Clinton would have had to receive a two-thirds majority vote against him, or 67 votes (Miller 226). Once the vote was cast and Clinton had been acquitted, he not only survived such a serious scandal but defeated his opponents. During the aftermath of the impeachment trial, Clinton’s approval ratings jumped to â€Å"an amazing† 73% (Mi ller 226). The American people essentially decided this case, and this fact bears scrutiny. How did Clinton survive the impeachment? What were the key factors that allowed him to dodge a potential political decapitation? Silva et al. point to one potential reason for Clinton’s buoyancy during the impeachment debacle: lack of public support for Starr (474). Americans, on the whole, approved Bill Clinton’s work in an office, and opponents did not have the opportunity to remove him from the presidency. Clinton’s work was not that perfect, but it was very good, and the nation was satisfied with the president’s ability to conduct his duties. Thus, the opponents had to seek for some other way to remove Clinton. For instance, Clinton’s primary investigator, Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr, tried to create a negative image of the president â€Å"taking his garbage to the curb outside his house† (Silva et al. 474). Of course, the image was unpleasa nt, and many people got disappointed with the morality of their president. However, Clinton’s image of a talented politician and very good president was not obscured by the dirt of sexual scandal. Moreover, the White House happily manipulated this fortuitous turn of events since it permitted them to extrapolate the impression of Bill Clinton as suitably presidential, and Starr was depicted as â€Å"politically motivated† person who was able to do everything to get promotion, namely an appointment to the Supreme Court appointment (Silva et al. 474). Starr’s bungling of his media image, and subsequent low public opinion, opened the doors for the superior Clinton â€Å"image machine† which portrayed Starr as biased investigator who created a network of â€Å"partisans† who tried to dig out something which could be used against the president in any way (Silva et al. 474). This image painted Starr negatively and added fodder to Hilary Clinton’s a ssertion that he was the lynchpin in a â€Å"vast right-wing conspiracy† (Silva et al. 474). A possible outcome of Clinton’s removal from office What would have happened if this moment had turned out differently? What would have been the result had Clinton been removed from office and not acquitted? The Republicans would have tasted victory. However, the impeachment process itself would have created a different environment in public office, specifically in regards to the office of the presidency, and given that office new responsibilities – as the purveyor of moral fortitude. Had Clinton been impeached, a clear message would have been sent: the President’s role is simply not to govern but to stand for the moral character of the nation he governs, and as such, he or she is subjected to constant unmitigated scrutiny and interpretation of moral behavior for the political ends or his or her opponents. However, had Clinton been impeached, that would have indic ated a deeper more disturbing revelation: namely, that sexual morality and monogamy define the moral character of a president. The other important result of the impeachment trial, had it been successful, would have been to declare open season on partisan politics. Had Clinton been impeached for receiving fellatio from a woman that he was not married to, it would have indicated that any partisan attempt to overthrow the opposition could use any means at their disposal and that the private behavior of presidents was fair game in the war to acquire political power in the United States. This would have opened the door for Democrats and Republicans alike to attack each other’s private lives, and depending on the perception of moral, successfully achieve power through salacious means. Should a President prove to be a closeted homosexual, or enjoy bondage, or dress up in women’s underwear, or collect pornography, or any of the other myriad expressions of sexuality that humans indulge in, he or she was politically cooked. Reputedly, the president is a kind of personification of the entire nation and, thus, presidents’ action is often taken symbolically (Stuckey and Wabshall 517). Likewise, the presidents’ actions can become an instrument of political struggle. Conclusion In conclusion, the impeachment trial of President Clinton in 1998 speaks to the riven collective American psyche in the arena of sexuality and monogamy. The partisan view at the time trusted public moral indignation to eject Clinton from office. The Republican faction gambled that Clinton’s private indiscretions would become his downfall, without taking into account the impact of Clinton’s approval ratings, not to mention a healthy economy, coupled with the popularity and charisma of Clinton himself. Apart from this, the opponents of the president chose the wrong way to remove him from office since the scandal is very peculiar. If Clinton were removed from off ice because of his private life, it would lead to partisan war in the political arena of the United States. Thus, the impeachment process was simply a poor attempt to remove Clinton from the office which was to fail due to many reasons. Works Cited Baker, Peter. The Breach: Inside the Impeachment and Trial of William Jefferson Clinton. New York: Scribner, 2000. Miller, John J. â€Å"Argument Efficacy: Evaluating the public Argument of President Bill Clinton’s Impeachment Crisis.† Argumentation and Advocacy 40.4 (2004): 226-247. Moran, Beverly I. Aftermath: The Clinton Impeachment and the Presidency in the Age of Political Spectacle. New York: New York University Press, 2001. Print. Pinkele, Carl F. â€Å"An Affair of State: The Investigation, Impeachment, and Trial of President Clinton.† The Historian 63.2 (2001): 422-424. Silva, Carol L., Hank C. Jenkins-Smith, and Richard Waterman. â€Å"Why Did Clinton Survive the Impeachment Crisis? A Test of Three Explanat ions.† Presidential Studies Quarterly 37.3 (2007): 468-486. Stuckey, Mary E., and Shannon Wabshall. â€Å"Sex, Lies, and Presidential Leadership: Interpretations of the Office.† Presidential Studies Quarterly 30.3 (2000): 514-534. This research paper on President Clinton’s Impeachment was written and submitted by user Pete Wisdom to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Outsider viewpoint Essay Example

Outsider viewpoint Essay Example Outsider viewpoint Essay Outsider viewpoint Essay This essay aims to explore two theories of identity, in particular how insider and outsider viewpoints have been used while researching these theories. A short discussion of what identity means is followed by an explanation of what insider and outsider viewpoints are. This distinction is then illustrated using two different identity theories and the studies that were used in their research.  Identity is a broad concept, therefore several theories have been proposed for different aspects of identities. Many types of research have been used to explore the topic the aim being formation of theories that explain what identities are, and how they form (Phoenix, 2002). To understand how this research into identity has made use of both insider and outsider viewpoints, it is important to be clear on what these terms mean. An insider viewpoint is subjective, and focuses on the experiences of particular individuals. This could include a persons emotions, beliefs, reasons and motives. Therefore the data generated from research taking an insider viewpoint usually falls into the category of inner experiences. To gain access to these experiences, the individual concerned must be able to explain them to the researcher and put them into words interviews and questionnaires are common methods when operating from an insider viewpoint. As we will see later it is also possible to take an individuals inner experiences and look at them in a more distant way using an outsider viewpoint. Taking an outsider viewpoint means looking at the subject from outside this approach is not concerned with the inner experiences of a particular individual. When taking this approach the aim is to be objective. This viewpoint favours data obtained from experiments (termed material data) and observations of behaviour. The outsider viewpoint is seen from the researchers point of view, rather than that of the participant (Phoenix and Thomas, 2002). When considering research into identity, both insider and outsider viewpoints have been used. Some theories may favour the use of one viewpoint, whereas others may approach the subject from both angles. An example of this can be seen in the research of psychosocial identity theory. The psychosocial theory suggests identity is influenced by personal and social factors, and that our identity is a bridge between our core selves and the social context (Erikson, 1968). Psychologist Erik Erikson founded the psychosocial approach and formed his theory mainly through clinical and naturalistic observation of people. This would have encompassed both an insider viewpoint hearing about his patients inner experiences and an outsider viewpoint using information gained by observing others (Phoenix, 2002). James Marcia also took the psychosocial approach and used the Identity Status Interview a semi-structured interview to research identity in many adolescents, expanding on Eriksons ideas. The semi-structured interview allows a set of questions to be asked in a flexible manner, allowing participants to answer freely in their own words, whilst still ensuring that the relevant topics are covered (Phoenix, 2002). Marcias aim was to explore to what extent adolescents took active choices from different possibilities before committing to particular roles which then became part of their identity. He used the semi-structured interview to discuss issues such as religion, politics, careers and relationships. The interviews were recorded so that the responses could be listened to and analysed later. This is an example of research from an insider viewpoint the result was personal accounts of individuals thoughts and experiences, told in their own words. Marcia also used the participants responses to categorise them into one of four stages of identity development (Marcia, 1966, 1980, 1994). This categorisation of responses by Marcia meant that the data was also looked at from his own perspective an outsider viewpoint. Another approach to identity is Social Identity Theory (SIT) which is concerned with group identities. SIT aims to explain how people identify with certain social groups and separate themselves from others. The theory proposes that our social identities arise from the labels that we give ourselves which are derived from the social groups that we feel a part of. SIT also proposes that there are power struggles between different social groups and this is what leads to prejudice and discrimination (Tajfel, 1978). The research methods that have been used to investigate the claims of SIT are very different from those used in psychosocial identity research. Henry Tajfel conducted the classic minimal group experiment this is a clear example of research being done solely from an outsider viewpoint. The experiment involved teenage boys separated randomly into two groups firstly thinking that they were being separated according to a preference for one of two artists. By asking each boy to select one of three sets of points to be allocated to the groups, Tajfel was able to assess which was most important to each boy total points achieved by the group, or maximising the difference in points between the two groups. He found that the boys were more concerned with maximising the points difference between their group and the other. The experiment was repeated and this time the boys were aware of the fact that their group allocations were completely random but the result was the same. This indicated to Tajfel that being placed into arbitrary groups is enough to generate favouritism towards the ingroup (ones own group) and discrimination towards the outgroup (the other group). Tajfel explained these findings in terms of individuals needing to feel part of groups that have high status compared to other groups hence we try to maximise the differences between our own group and others, to maintain a positive social identity (Tajfel et.al. 1971). Using an outsider viewpoint, Tajfel was able to investigate the dynamics of social groups, achieving results which support his theory. Looking at the situation from an insider viewpoint would not have been helpful since individuals may not be aware that they are seeking to improve the status of the social groups to which they belong, or why they would want to do so.  In looking at psychosocial theory and SIT it is clear that both the insider viewpoint and the outsider viewpoint have an important part to play when researching identities. Studying identities from both the participants point of view and that of the researcher allows different facets of the concept of identity to be explored, leading to a better knowledge of how identities are formed both personally and socially.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

How to Ensure Online Tutoring from PrepScholarTutors Is Right for You

How to Ensure Online Tutoring from PrepScholarTutors Is Right for You SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips While the vast majority of articles on our blog are about immediate tips for the SAT/ACT test, from time to time we also feature some latest products we at PrepScholar are coming out with. This time, we're annoucing our new PrepScholarTutors.com product. It combines the affordability and customization of PrepScholar Automated Prep with varying levels of premium tutoring, giving you many advantages of each. 3 New Tutoring Packages from PrepScholar Most of the features of PrepScholarTutors are explained on its own website, so if you haven't read through it yet (it's short and an easy read!), the best way to get some background on the service is by reading the site. The idea is this:you already know how great our PrepScholar Automated Prep is - why not take it to the next level by adding on tutoring? There are varying degrees of tutoring you can add on: - Our Monitored Automated Prep package can be seen as a similar training strategy to automated prep, but with a few extra hours to bring your training to the next level. While our Automated Prep program is designed to be 99% self understandable, there may be a couple of small areas that you're stuck at and want an explanation for. Likewise, you might be making a pattern of mistakes that's very hard for you to detect yourself, but a professional can spot very quickly. If you're worried about a few uncommon instances of "getting stuck" not understanding a critical strategy or content, then Monitored Autoated Prep is the best package for you. It has a few hours of 1:1 online instruction that will ensure you never get stuck, while keeping the vast majority of the learning in the Automated Prep framework. - Our Full Tutor-Lead Complete Prep package is our most popular tutoring package that we've been doing for years now. This package is designed to give you all the advantages of traditional tutoring, plus more. You meet 1:1 with a tutor, who is main guiding force behind your preparation. The learning isdirected by your tutor at this point, yet you're able to save because all the drilling and scheduling happens via our Automated Prep Package. In other words, you get the best of both worlds: you get one of the top tutors over all of the USA to guide you, while also relegating practice, drills, and other exercises to automated prep to save on cost. - Our Maximum Tutoring package is meant for students who want tutoring to be almost all of their prep. With 40 hours of included tutoring, our 1:1 time can take you from knowing nothing about the test to knowing everything. You still have the option to drill on our Automated Prep platform, but at this point your main strong desire is to get almost all your prep from our world-class tutors. Since effective tutoring is one of the best ways for you to learn, if you have the budget, and strongly desire the maximum number of points, this package is for you. Why Choose Tutoring From PrepScholar? As I have mentioned many times before, there are many ways to study for the SAT / ACT:by yourself, with online prep, or with tutoring. I certainly believe that with the right tutor, tutoring is the most effective way to improve: anyone who has had the experience of receiving personalized 1:1 instruction from a great teacher will immediately understand why - the effectiveness of good 1:1 tutoring is bar none. However, the key phrase is choosing therighttutor. Usually, choosing the right tutor is difficult. A local high school senior who recently got a great grade himself might offer tutoring for as low as $70/hour or less. But be careful: we've all met many people who know a subject really well themselves, but have real trouble explaining the concept to others. This is due to the curse of knowledge: if you know a topic by heart already, it is very difficult to empathize with what it's like not to understand that topic. This strongly afflicts tutors without a track record, which is why we always caution against using tutors that score well themselves, but without proven experience in teaching. At PrepScholarTutors, we ensure our tutors both have a high score (by verifying directly with the testing authorities), and ensure they know how to teach. We ensure tutor quality by only taking tutors who have proven track records of improving the SAT / ACT scores of students in the past. Moreover, before hiring each tutor, we have our experts sit in on mock tutoring sessions and vet each tutor for precise skills and tactics in teaching. This way, we ensure that our tutors not only know the material, but also know how to teach the material. We also ensure tutors know how to work best with our automated prep system so that tutoring works seamlessles with online autoated prep. Also, since we we're an online prep company focused on helping busy students, our tutoring schedule is always flexible. We never require students to have a fixed time of week for tutoring, or be ridged in their scheduling. You can change your schedule around week by week to ensure the best fit for your sports practice and other extracurriculars. Rest Assured With These Guarantees We believe in the effectiveness of our tutoring so much that we're more than happy to put our money where our mouth is: by giving you multiple guarantees about our tutoring product at PrepScholarTutors.com. All these guarantees overlap so you're not limited to choosing just one - you get all of them. Our first guarantee is the one-hour full money back guarantee for any reason. That is to say, when you have your first hour of tutoring, if you don't like it, you get all your money back, including the cost of the first hour! We're so sure you'll like it that we can extend you this guarantee. You can get the money back for any reason or no reason at all - there are no qualifictions on this. If you've used the automated prep portion of your package for fewer than 10 hours, you can get a full refund on that as well, and otherwise the full refund applies completely to the tutoring portion of your package. This lets you make sure that our tutoring level meets or exceeds your expectations, without risking any money at all. The second guarantee applies through the duration of the tutoring. We guarantee that you can cancel at any time and get the unused portion of your costs back. In other words, we have no lock-in contracts. This is something very important as you'll be sure that each lesson continues to meet the high standards of excellence you set. Some companies rely on lock-ins because they're not sure you'll stay for their tutoring quality alone. We are confident enough in our continued tutoring quality that we let you receive a refund at anytime for all unused costs. Finally, we still have our standard 160+ improvement (on the 3-section SAT) and 4 point improvement (on the ACT) guarantee. If you don't improve that much from real test to real test after using our tutoring program, then you get double the hours of tutoring for free. Our tutors are premium and doubling the hours isn't cheap for us, but we're so confident in our ability to raise your score that we offer the 160+ Point / 4+ Point Guarantee. Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Tweet Dr. Fred Zhang About the Author Fred is co-founder of PrepScholar. He scored a perfect score on the SAT and is passionate about sharing information with aspiring students. 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